Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science https://www.sjovs.org/index.php/SJOVS <p><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana;">Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana;">is a forum for promoting research amongst optometrists and other researchers in optometry and visual science in Europe.</span></p> The Norwegian Association of Optometry (Norges Optikerforbund, NOF) in collaboration with the Italian Association of Optometry (La Società Optometrica Italiana, SOPTI) en-US Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 1891-0882 Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Application, limits, scoring and improvements of Groffman Visual Tracing test https://www.sjovs.org/index.php/SJOVS/article/view/116 <p>The Groffman Visual Tracing (GVT) test is a psychometric oculomotor test comprising two cards with five contorted and intersected lines, and which is available for the clinical evaluation of ocular movements. The participant starts from the letter at the top, follows the line, and reports the corresponding number at the bottom of each line. The aim of this study is to evaluate two claims made when details of the GVT test were originally reported: whether it is a developmental test, and the feasibility of its application starting from primary school children up to adults. This was achieved by using the GVT test and a simplified version of it. In two consecutive experiments, we tested two groups of children and adults. In the first experiment, 75 children (1<sup>st</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup>, and 5<sup>th</sup> grade) and 25 adults underwent the GVT test. In the second experiment, 115 children from 1<sup>st</sup> to 5<sup>th</sup> grade underwent a simplified version of the test. Total scoring, accuracy and time to complete the test were evaluated. In the first experiment, 24% of children in the 1<sup>st</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> grades did not follow any lines correctly due to the difficulty of the test. In the second experiment, all participants were able to perform the test with both cards, and the accuracy improved significantly with age (p&lt;0.0001). The time required to follow the lines was found to decrease with age (p&lt;0.0001), and the accuracy improves (p&lt;0.0001) compared with the standard version. The standard version of the GVT test has proven to be too difficult for younger children and a modified version produced improved results. Children at or below the 5<sup>th</sup> grade should to be tested using the modified version. Older children and adults can be tested with the standard version. Specific norms based on execution times and accuracy should to be established.</p> Alessio Facchin Lavinia Giordano Giovanni Brebbia Silvio Maffioletti Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 13 1 2 9 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i1p2-9 Group Work and Peer Assessment in Optometry Higher Education. https://www.sjovs.org/index.php/SJOVS/article/view/114 <p>In health-related professions, education has unique challenges. Problem-based learning can be extremely useful and driven by strategies such as group-work (GW) and peer assessment (PA), which are both used as formative and assessment tools. This study aimed to explore experience and perceptions about GW and PA held by educators and students in optometry. In a first survey, 45 Italian educators (43.8 ± 13.0 years old) of optometric clinical modules answered an email questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards GW and PA. In a second survey, 66 3rd-year undergraduates (22.5 ± 2.0 years old) answered a questionnaire investigating the perception and attitudes towards GW and PA at the beginning and at the end of a module of Advanced Optometry structured with a formative/summative GW activity with a final PA. Two-thirds of optometry educators declared they use GW, but not as a summative assessment tool. Only a quarter of the sample answered that they used PA at least once. Educators’ attitudes towards GW were more positive than PA (p &lt; 0.001). About 60% and 80% of the interviewed students stated they have never participated in GW and PA, respectively. Students’ pre-course attitudes towards GW and PA resulted in values close to the middle of the scale with no significant differences and positive correlations between them (p &lt; 0.001). When students’ GW attitudes were compared with educators’ GW attitudes, the latter were more positive. Students’ post-course attitudes towards GW and PA were enhanced. Although GW and PA are considered very good strategies to improve teaching, the results of the present study have demonstrated that the use of these strategies in Italian optometric higher education is limited. However, the study has also demonstrated that Italian optometry educators have positive attitudes towards “social” teaching strategies especially for GW. Furthermore, optometry students showed improved attitudes towards these strategies once exposed to them. Overall, the results of the study open the possibility to integrate “social” teaching strategies to improve the effectiveness of optometry education. </p> Fabrizio Zeri Riccardo Cervio Marta Mosci Silvia Tavazzi Shehzad Naroo Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 13 1 10 18 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i1p10-18 SOPTI Meeting 2020: Abstracts https://www.sjovs.org/index.php/SJOVS/article/view/127 <p>The 25th National Conference of the Italian Optometric Association&nbsp;(SOPTI) was held in Verona on January 19–20, 2020. The theme of the&nbsp;conference was “Innovative technologies in Optometry and Contact&nbsp;Lenses”, was arranged in 3 sessions: optometry, contact lenses, and&nbsp;ophthalmology. Three keynote speakers were invited during the conference:&nbsp;Prof. Rigmor C. Baraas from the University of South-Eastern&nbsp;Norway in Kongsberg, Prof. Silvia Tavazzi from University of Milano Bicocca&nbsp;and Dr. Iwan Zanchetta, clinical practice Rothrist, Switzerland.&nbsp;The abstracts from accepted posters and free papers are presented&nbsp;here.</p> Fabrizio Zeri Copyright (c) 2020 Authors of Abstracts 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 13 1 24 29 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i1p24-29 Refitting a patient with pellucid marginal degeneration from a corneal rigid gas permeable lens to scleral lens https://www.sjovs.org/index.php/SJOVS/article/view/113 <p>This case report describes a 66 years old male patient with pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD). The patient had fallen out of a regular follow-up scheme and presented with a poorly fitting corneal rigid lens that he had worn for almost five years. Correction had failed to improve vision in the left eye, so the patient wears a contact lens in his right eye only. Scleral lenses vault over the cornea, the tear layer between the lens and the cornea masks corneal irregularities and are a good correction option for corneal ectasias. This patient was fitted with an Onefit scleral lens that provided good visual acuity and comfort. Lens handling was no obstacle to this patient. A heart surgery postponed the first follow-up examination. Follow-up examination 8 months after the refit resulted in no changes of lens parameters as the fitting was still acceptable and the patient was happy. Attention to the inferior limbal clearance will be the focus at the next follow-up in 6 months’ time. </p> Eilin Lundanes Jörgen Gustafsson Copyright (c) 2020 Authors 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 13 1 19 23 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i1p19-23 Editorial by Baraas, Zeri & Macedo https://www.sjovs.org/index.php/SJOVS/article/view/128 Rigmor C Baraas Copyright (c) 2020 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 13 1 1 1 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i1p1