Vision measurability and its impact on safe driving â€“ a literature review
Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on safe driving have proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measure vision in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen in the literature is that traditional vision tests increasingly are supplemented by cognitive tests. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of visual capabilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about the visual capabilities that are essential for safe driving; which tests are available and how they are used; and existing evidence for these tests. The literature review was based on database searches of TRID, Web of Science and PubMed. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provided an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Moreover, the results were structured according to the different visual capabilities and a corresponding account of the diseases that may affect these capabilities; which tests that are available and corroborating evidence for the test; and the manner in which these capabilities are important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the review and these were contrast sensitivity, and Useful Field of View. It was also concluded that 1), testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, and 2), visual acuity is not sufficient for safe driving, and 3), tests including cognitive aspects can complement vision testing and improve the assessment of safe driving.
Akinwuntan, A. E., Devos, H., Stepleman, L., Casillas, R., Rahn, R., Smith, S., & Williams, M. J. (2012). Predictors of driving in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 19(3), 344-350.
Allen, D., & Vasavada, A. (2006). Cataract and surgery for cataract. British Medical Journal, 333 (7559): 128â€“32.
Alberti, C. F., Peli, E., & Bowers, A. R. (2013). Driving With Hemianopia: III. Detection of Stationary and Approaching Pedestrians in a Simulator. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 55, 368â€“374.
Alm, H. (2000). Driver Fatigue and Accidents - can Visual Sensitivity Predict Drivers Ability to Drive Safely? Proceedings of the IEA 2000/ HFES 2000 Congress, San Diego, California
Amick, M. M., Grace, J., & Ott, B. R. (2007). Visual and cognitive predictors of driving safety in Parkinsonâ€™s disease patients. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 957â€“967.
Anstey, K. J., & Wood, J. M. (2011). Chronological Age and Age-Related Cognitive Deficits Are Associated With an Increase in Multiple Types of Driving Errors in Late Life. Neuropsychology, 25(5), 613â€“621.
Atchison, D. A., Pedersen, C. A., Dain, S. J., & Wood, J. M. (2003). Traffic Signal Color Recognition Is a Problem for Both Protan and Deutan Color-Vision Deficients. Human Factors, 45(3), 495-503.
Ayala, M. (2012). Comparison of the monocular Humphrey visual field and the binocular Humphrey esterman visual field test for driver licensing in glaucoma subjects in Sweden. BMC Ophthalmology, 12(35), 1471-2415.
Babizhayev, M. A. (2003) Glare Disability and Driving Safety. Ophthalmic Research, 35, 19â€“25.
Bahnemann, M., Hamel, J., De Beukelaer, S., Ohl, S., Kehrer, S., Audebert, H., Kraft, A., & Brandt, S. A. (2014). Compensatory eye and head movements of patients with homonymous hemianopia in the naturalistic setting of a driving simulation. Journal of Neurology, 262:316â€“325.
Bal, T., Coeckelbergh, T., Van Looveren, J., Rozema, J. J., & Tassignon, B. J. (2011). Influence of Cataract Morphology on Straylight and Contrast Sensitivity and Its Relevance to Fitness to Drive. Ophthalmologica, 225, 105â€“111.
Ball, K., & Owsley, C. (2003), Driving Competence: It's Not a Matter of Age. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51: 1499â€“1501.
Ball, K., Wadley, V., Edwards, J., & Ball, D. (2001). Meta-analysis of crash risk factors among older drivers application to a model program of driver screening. Proceedings of the First International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Snowmass Village at Aspen, Colorado, USA August 14-17, 2001.
Bentley, S. A., LeBlanc, R. P., Nicolela, M. T., & Chauhan, B. C. (2012). Validity, reliability, and repeatability of the useful field of view test in persons with normal vision and patients with glaucoma. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53(11), 6763-6769.
Bohensky, M., Charlton, J., Odell, M., & Keefe, J. (2008). Implications of vision testing for older driver licensing. Traffic Injury Prevention, 9(4), 304-313.
Bohensky, M., Oxley, J., Odell, M., Charlton, J., Williams, T., & Fildes, B. (2007). Drivers with visual field loss in one Australian licensing jurisdiction. Proceedings Australasian Road Safety 2007 Research Policing and Education Conference, 17-19 October, Melbourne, pp17
Bowers, A., & Peli, E. (2005). Assessing driving performance with moderate visual field loss. Proceedings of the Third International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Maine, USA, June 27-30. Acta Ophthalmologica. Scandinavica, 85: 367â€“370.
Bowers, A., Peli, E., Elgin, J., McGwin, G., & Owsley, C. (2005). On-Road Driving with Moderate Visual Field Loss. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(8), 657-667.
Bowers, A., Mandel, A. J., Goldstein, R. B., & Peli, E. (2007). Simulator-Based driving with Hemianopia: Detection, performance and compensatory behaviors on approach to intersections. Proceedings of the 4th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design, Stevenson, Washington, July 9-12.
Bowers, A. R., Mandel, A. J. Goldstein, R. B., & Peli, E. (2009). Driving with Hemianopia, I: Detection Performance in a Driving Simulator. Investigative Ophthalmology& Visual Science, 50(11), 5137â€“5147.
Bowers, A. R., Mandel, A. J. Goldstein, R. B., & Peli, E. (2010). Driving with Hemianopia, II: Lane Position and Steering in a Driving Simulator. IOVS, 51(12), 6605-6613.
Carberry, T. P., Wood, J. M., Watson, B. C., & King M. J. (2006). Self-awareness of driving impairments in patients with cataract or glaucoma. Proceedings of the 2006 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, October 2006.
Carr, D. B. (2007). Current Knowledge on Medical Fitness-to-Drive: The Role of the Clinician. North American License Policies Workshop: Background Papers. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. December 3.
Chisholm, C. M., Rauscher, F. G., Crabb, C. D., Davies, L. N., Dunne, M. C., Edgar, D. F., Harlow, J. A., James-Galton, M., Petzold, A, Plant, G. T., Viswanathan, A. C., Underwood, G. J., & Barbur, J. L. (2008). Assessing visual fields for driving in patients with paracentral scotomata. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 92, 225â€“230.
Classen, S., McCarthy, D. P., Schechtman, O., Awadzi, K. D., Lanford, D. N., Okun, M. S., Rodriguez, R. L., Romrell, R., Bridges, S., Kluger, B., & Fernandez, H. H. (2009). Useful field of view as a reliable screening measure of driving performance in people with Parkinsonâ€™s disease: Results from a pilot study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 10, 593-598.
Cline, D., Hofstetter, H. W., & Griffin, JR. (1997). Dictionary of Visual Science (4th ed). Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston.
Cohen, Y., Zadok, D., Barkana, Y., Shochat, Z., Ashkenazi, I., Avni, I., & Morad. Y. (2007). Relationship between night myopia and night-time motor vehicle accidents. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 85(4), 367-70.
Cole, B. L. (2002). Protan colour vision deficiency and road accidents. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 85, 243-250.
Currie, Z., Bhan, A., & Pepper, I. (2000). Reliability of Snellen charts for testing visual acuity for driving: prospective study and postal questionnaire. British Medical Journal, 321, 990â€“2
Cushman, L. A. (1996). Cognitive capacity and concurrent driving performance in older drivers. IATSS Res, 20:38â€“45.
Desapriya, E., Subzwari, S., Fujiwara, T., & Pike, I. (2008). Conventional vision screening tests and older driver motor vehicle crash prevention. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 15(2), 124-126.
Devos, H., Vandenberghe, M. D., Nieuwboer, A., Tant, M., Baten, G., & De Weerdt, W. (2007). Predictors of fitness to drive in people with Parkinson disease. Neurology, 69:1434â€“1441.
Duchek, J. M., Hunt, L., Ball, K., Buckles, V., & Morris, J. C. (1998). Attention and driving performance in Alzheimerâ€™s disease. Journal of Gerontology B Psychol Sci Soc Sci;53B:130â€“141.
Edwards, J. D., Vance, D. E., Wadley, V. G., Cissell, G. M., Roenker, D., & Ball, K. K. (2005). Reliability and validity of useful field of view test scores as administered by personal computer. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27(5), 529-543.
Elgin, J., McGwin, G., Wood, J. M., Vaphiades, M. S., Braswell, R. A., DeCarlo, D. K., Kline, L. B., & Owsley, C. (2010). Evaluation of On-Road Driving in Persons with Hemianopia and Quadrantanopia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(2), 268â€“278.
Fraser, M. L., Meuleners, L. B., Lee, A. H., Ng, J. Q., & Morlet, N. (2012). Which visual measures affect change in driving difficulty after first eye cataract surgery? Accident Analysis and Prevention 58, 10â€“14.
Freeman, E. E., MuÃ±os, B., Turano, K .A., & West, S. H. (2005). Measures of Visual Function and Time to Driving Cessation in Older Adults. American Academy of Optometry, 82 (8), 765-773. Associations Between Visual, Hearing, and Dual Sensory
Freeman, E. E., MuÃ±os, B., Turano, K. A., & West, S. K. (2006). Measures of visual function and their association with driving modification in older adults. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47(2), 514-520.
Gray, R., & Regan, D. (2007). Glare susceptibility test results correlate with temporal safety margin when executing turns across approaching vehicles in simulated low-sun conditions. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 27(5), 440-450.
Green, K. A., McGwin, G. Jr., & Owsley, C. (2013). Impairments and History of Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement of Older Drivers. The American Geriatrics Society, 61, 252-257. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 27, 440â€“450.
Groeger, J.A. (2000). Understanding driving: applying cognitive psychology to a complex everyday task. London: Routledge.
Haymes, S. A., LeBlanc, R. P., Nicolela, M. T., Chiasson, L. A., & Chauhan, B. C. (2007). Risk of falls and motor vehicle collisions in glaucoma. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 48(3), 1149-1155.
Haymes, S. A., LeBlanc, R. P., Nicolela, M. T., Chiasson, L. A., & Chauban, B. C. (2008). Glaucoma and on-road driving performance. Opthalmology & Visual Science, 49(7), 3035-3041.
Henderson, S., & Donderi, D. C. (2005). Peripheral motion contrast sensitivity and older driversâ€™ detection failure accident risk. Proceedings of the Third International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Rockport, Maine, US, June 27-30, 2005, (pp. 41-50).
Higgins, K. E., & Wood, J. M. (2005). Predicting components of closed road driving performance from vision tests. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(8), 647-656.
Hoffman, L., McDowd, J., Atchley, P., & Dubinsky, R. (2015). The Role of Visual Attention in Predicting Driving Impairment in Older Adults. Psychology and Aging, 20(4), 610â€“622.
Horton, P., & Chakman, J. (2002). Optometrists Association Australia position statement on driver vision standards. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 85(4), 241-245.
Johnson, C.A., & Keltner J.L. (1983). Incidence of visual field loss in 20,000 eyes and its relationship to driving performance. Archives Ophthalmology; 101:371â€“375.
Johnson, C. A., & Wilkinson, M. E. (2010). Vision and driving: The United States. Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, 30, 170-176.
Jolly, N., Blanchette, S., Major, J., & Heard, R. (2006). Increasing senior driver safety through vision tests and education â€“ A community based approach. Proceedings of the Australian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference 2006, Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast, Australia, October 25-27, 1-10.
Kaleem, M. A., Munoz, B. E., Munro, C. A., Gower, E. W., & West, S. K. (2015). Visual Characteristics of Elderly Night Drivers in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 53(9), 5161-5167.
Kiel, A. W., Butler, T., & Alwitry, A. (2003). Visual acuity and legal visual requirement to drive a passenger vehicle. Eye, 17, 579â€“582.
Kotecha, A., Spratt, A., & Viswanathan, A. (2008). Visual function and fitness to drive. British Medical Bulletin, 87, 163-174.
KÃ¤llmark, F. (2015). Hur fÃ¶rÃ¤ndras vitala synfunktioner med Ã¥ldern? Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
Lasa, M. S. M., Podgor, M. J., Datiles, M. B., Caruso, R. C., & Magno, B. V. (1993). Glare sensitivity in early cataracts. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 77, 489-491.
Levecq, L., De Potter, P., & Jamart, J. (2013). Visual acuity and factors influencing automobile driving status in 1,000 patients age 60 and older. Graefers Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 251, 881-887.
Lockhart, J., Ng Boyle, L., & Wilkinson, M. (2009). Driving with visual field loss: An exploratory simulation study. NHTSA Report No: DOT HS 811 062.
Marrington, S. A., Horswill, M. S., & Wood, J. M. (2008). The effect of simulated cataracts on driversâ€™ hazard perception ability. Optometry and vision science, 85(12), 1121-1127.
Martin, L. (2010). Att mÃ¤ta syn. (2.uppl.) Visby: Nomen.
McGwin Jr, G., Chapman, V., & Owsley, C. (2000). Visual risk factors for driving difficulty among older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 735-744.
McGwin Jr, G., Xie, A., Mays, A., Joiner, W., DeCarlo, D. K., Andrew Hall, T., & Owsley, C. (2005). Visual field defects and the risk of motor vehicle collisions among patients with glaucoma. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46(12), 4437-4441.
McGwin,G., Sarrels, S.A., Griffin, R., Owsley, C., Rue, L.W. (2008). The Impact of a Vision Screening Law on Older Driver Fatality Rates. Archieves of Ophthalmology, 126(11), 1544â€“1547
Mills, K. C., Hubal, R. C., & Wall, B. T. (2003). The relationship between collision history and a computerized assessment of visual and cognitive skills in a sample of school bus drivers. Proceedings of the Second International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Park City, Utah, USA, July 21-24
Morrisey, M. A., & Grabowski, D. C. (2005). State motor vehicle laws and older drivers. Health Economics, 14, 407-419.
Myers, R., Ball, K. K., Kalina, T. D., Roth, D. L., Goode, K. T. (2000). Relation of Useful field of view and other screening tests to on-road driving performance. Perceptual and motor skills, 91, 279-290.
Odell, M. (2005). Assessing fitness to drive Part 2. Australian Family Physician, 34(6).
Oswanski, M. F., Sharma, O. P., Raj, S. S., Vassar, L. A., Woods, K. L. Sargent, W. M., & Pitock, R. J. (2007).
Evaluation of two assessment tools in predicting driving ability of senior drivers. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 86(3), 190-199.
Owen, V. M. F., Crabb, D. P., White, E. T., Viswanathan, A. C., Garway, D. F., & Hitchings, R. A. (2008). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 49(6), 2449-2455.
Owsley, C., Ball, K., McGwin Jr, G., Sloane, M. E., Roenker, D. L., White, M. F., & Overley, E. T. (1998).Visual processing impairment and risk of motor vehicle crash among older adults. JAMA, 279, 1083â€“1088.
Owsley, C., & McGwin Jr, G. (2008). Driving and age-related macular degeneration. J Vis Impair Blind, 102(10), 621-635.
Owsley, C., & McGwin Jr, G. (2010). Vision and Driving. (2010). Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science. 50(2): 577â€“585.
Owsley, C., McGwin Jr, G., & Ball, K. (1998).Vision impairment, eye disease, and injurious motor vehicle crashes in the elderly. Ophthalmic Epidemiol, 5, 101â€“113.
Owsley, C., McGwin Jr, G., Sloane, M. E., Wells, J., Stalvey, B. T., & Gauthreaux, S. (2002) Impact of cataract surgery on motor vehicle crash involvement by older adults. JAMA, 288, 841â€“849.
Owsley, C., Stalvey, B. T.,Wells, Sloane, M., & McGwin Jr, G. (2001).Visual risk factors for crash involvement in older drivers with cataract. Archives Ophthalmology; 119, 881â€“887.
Papageorgiou, E., Hardiess, G., Ackermann, H., Wiethoelter, H., Dietz, K., Mallot, H. A., & Schiefer, U. (2010). Collision avoidance in persons with homonymous visual field defects under virtual reality conditions. Vision Research, 52, 20â€“30.
Puell, M. C., Palomo, C., SÃ¡nchez-Ramos, C., & Villena, C. (2004). Mesopic contrast sensitivity in the presence of glare in a large driver population. Graefeâ€™s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 242, 755-761.
Racette, L., & Casson, E. J. (2005). The impact of visual field loss on driving performance: Evidence from on-road driving assessments. Optometry and vision science, 82(8), 668-674.
Rao, P., Munoz, B., Turano, K., Munro, C., & West, S. K. (2013). The decline in attentional visual fields over time among older participants in the Salisbury eye evaluation driving study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54(3), 1839-1844.
Rizzo, M., Reinach, S., McGehee, D., & Dawson, J. (1997). Simulated car crashes and crash predictors in drivers with Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology;54:545â€“551.
Rubin, G. S., Ng, E. S. W., Bandeen-Roche, K., Keyl, P. M., Freeman, E. E., & West, S. K. (2007). A prospective, population-based study of the role of visual impairment in motor vehicle crashes among older drivers: The SEE study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 48(4), 1483-1491.
Sandlin, D., McGwin, G., & Owsley, C. (2014). Association Between Vision Impairment and Driving Exposure in Older Adults Aged 70 Years and Over: A Population-Based Examination. Acta Ophthalmologica, 92(3): 207â€“212.
Scialfa, C., Ference, J., Boone, J., Tay, R., & Hudson, C. (2010). Predicting older adultsâ€™ driving difficulties using the roadwise review. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 65B(4), 434-437.
Schultheis, M. T., Manning, K., Weisser, V., Blasco, A., Ang, J., & Wilkinson, M. E. (2010). Vision and Driving in Multiple Sclerosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91, 315-317.
Shipp, M. D. (2000). Do vision related renewal policies inhibit older driver relicensure? Conference Proceedings from Road Safety on Three Continents, Pretoria, RSA.
Shipp, M. D., Daum, K. M., Weaver, J. L., Nakagawara, V. B., Bailey, I. L., Wood, G. W., Maizel, M. B., & Park, W. L. (2000). Motor vision policy. Optometry, 71, 449-453.
Sims, R. V., McGwin Jr, G., Allman, R. M., Ball, K., & Owsley, C. (2000). Exploratory Study of Incident Vehicle Crashes Among Older Drivers. Journal of Gerontology, 55(1), M22-M27.
Stav, W. B., Justiss, M. D., McCarthy, D. P., Mann, W. C., & Lanford, D. N. (2008). Predictability of clinical assessments for driving performance. Journal of Safety Research 39, 1â€“7.
Tagarelli, A., Piro, A., Tagarelli, G., Lantieri, B., Risso, D., & Olivieri, R. L. (2004). Colour blindness in everyday life and car driving. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavia, 82, 436-442.
Tanabe, S., Yuki, K., Ozeki, N., Shiba, D., Abe, T., Kouyama, K., & Tsubota, K. (2011). The association between primary open-angle glaucoma and motor vehicle collisions. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 52(7), 4177-4181.
Theeuwes, J., & Alferdiock, J. V. (1996). The relation between discomfort glare and driving behavior (Report No. DOT HS 808 452), U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington DC, pp.1-64.
Thorslund, T. (2014). Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility. (Doctoral dissertation). LinkÃ¶ping: LinkÃ¶ping University Electronic Press
Transportstyrelsen. (2015). TrafiksÃ¤kerheten i Sverige â€“ Medicinska krav i transportsystemet. Rapport TSG 2015-819, Transportstyrelsen.
Uc, E. Y., Rizzo, M., Anderson, S. W., & Sparks, J. D. (2006). Impaired Visual Search in Drivers with Parkinsonâ€™s disease. Annals of Neurology, 60, 407â€“413.
Uc, E. Y., Rizzo, M., Anderson, S.W., Dastrup, E., Sparks, J. D., & Dawson, J. D. (2009). Driving under low-contrast visibility conditions in Parkinson disease. Neurology, 73(14), 1103-1110.
Van Rijn, L. J., Nischler, C., Michael, R., Heine, C., Coeckelbergh, T., Wilhelm, H., Grabner, G., Barraquer, R. I., & Van den Berg, T. J. (2011). Prevalence of impairment of visual function in European drivers. Acta Ophthalmologica, 89, 124â€“131.
Vaphiades, M. S., Kline, L. B., McGwin Jr, G., Owsley, C., Shah, R., & Wood, J. M. (2014). Prediction of driving safety in individuals with homonymous hemianopia and quadrantanopia from clinical neuroimaging. Journal of Ophthalmology, 2014, 1-6.
Vingrys, A. J, & Cole, B. L. (1988) Are colour vision standards justified in the transport industry? Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics; 8: 257-274.
West, C. G., Gildengorin, G., Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G., Lott, L. A., Schneck, M. E., & Brabyn, J. A. (2003).Vision and driving self-restriction in older adults. Journal of American Geriatrics Society,51: 1348â€“1355.
White, J. E., Marshall, S. C., Diedrich-Closson, K. L., & Burton, A. L. (2001). Evaluation of Motor Vehicle Driving Performance in Patients with Chronic Diplopia. Journal of AAPOS, 5(3), 184-187.
Wood, J. M. (2002). Age and visual impairment decrease driving performance as measured on a closed-road circuit. Human Factors, 44(3), 482-494.
Wood, J. M., & Carberry, T. P. (2004). Older drivers and cataracts â€“ Measures of driving performance before and after cataract surgery. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1865, 7-13.
Wood, J. M, Chaparro, A., & Carberry, T. (2007).
Investigation of the interaction between visual impairment and multi-tasking on driving performance. IN: I. J. Faulks, M. Regan, M. Stevenson, J. Brown, A. Porter & J. D. Irwin (Eds.). Distracted Driving. Sydney, NSW: Australasian College of Road Safety (pp. 623-640).
Wood, J. M., Chaparro, A., Carberry, T., & Hickson, L. (2006). How multitasking interacts with visual impairment and age on measures of driving performance. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1980, 65-69.
Wood, J., Chaparro, A., Carberry, T., & Sun Chu, (2010). Effect of simulated visual impairment on nighttime driving performance. Optometry and Vision Science, 87(6), 379-386.
Wood, J., Chaparro, A., & Hickson, L. (2009). Interaction between visual status, driver age and distracters on daytime driving performance. Vision Research, 49, 2225-2231.
Wood, J. M., Lacherez, P., & Tyrrell, R. A. (2014). Seeing pedestrians at night: effect of driver age and visual abilities. Ophthalmic Physiology Optics, 34, 452â€“458.
Wood, J. M., & Mallon, K. (2001). Comparison of driving performance of young and old drivers (with and without visual impairment) measured during in-traffic conditions. Optometry and Vision Science, 78(5), 343-349.
Wood, J.M. & Owens, D. A. (2005). Standard measures of visual acuity do not predict driversâ€™ recognition performance under day or night conditions. Optometry and vision science, 82(8), 698-705.
Wood, J. M., Tyrrell, R. A., Chaparro, A., Marszalek, R. P., Carberry, T. P., & Sun Chu, B. (2012). Even moderate visual impairments degrade driversâ€™ ability to see pedestrians at night. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53(6), 2586-2592.
Wood J.M, & Troutbeck R. (1995). Elderly drivers and simulated visual impairment. Optometry and vision science;72:155â€“124.
Wood, J. M., McGwin Jr. G, Elgin, J., Vaphiades, M. S., Braswell, R. A., DeCarlo, D. K., Kline, L. B., Meek, G. C., Searcey, K., & Owsley, C. (2009). On-Road Driving Performance by Persons with Hemianopia and Quadrantanopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 50(2): 577â€“585.
Worringham, C. J., Wood, J. M., Kerr, G. K., & Silburn, P. A. (2006). Predictors of driving assessment outcome in Parkinsonâ€™s disease. Movement Disorders, 21(2), 230-235.
Yuki, K., Asaoka, R., & Tsubota, K. (2014). The Relationship between Central Visual Field Damage and Motor Vehicle Collisions in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients. PLOS ONE, dec 2014.
Zhang, L., Baldwin, K., Munoz, B., Munro, C., Turano, K., Hassan, S., Lyketsos, C., Bandeen-Roche, K., & West, S. K. (2007). Visual and cognitive predictors of performance on a brake reaction test: Salisbury eye evaluation driving study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol, 14(4), 216-222.
Zhang, D., Jin, J., Luo, L., Zuo, J., Chen, G., & Mao, M. (2000). Effect of Driver Dynamic Visual Field on Safety Driving. Proceeding of the 7th world congress on intelligent systems, Turin, Italy, November 6-9, 2000.